Bulletproof Web Design

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Bulletproof Web Design
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This book is about interaction design—the practice ofdesigning interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services. Like many design disciplines, interaction design is concerned with form.However,first and foremost,interaction design focuses on something that traditional design disciplines do not often explore:the design ofbehavior.
Most design affectshuman behavior:Architecture is concerned with how people use physical space, and graphic design often attempts to motivate or facilitate a response.But now,with the ubiquity ofsilicon-enabled products—from computers to cars and phones—we routinely create products that exhibitcomplex behavior.
Доп. информация: книга посвящена проектированию взаимодействия - практике создания цифровых интерактивных продуктов, сред, систем и служб и проектированию поведения, в частности. В ней описывается конкретный подход к проектированию взаимодействия получивший название «Целеориентированный метод» (Goal-Directed Design, © Alan Cooper), при котором акцент ставится на первоначальных мотивах использования продукта людьми, а также учитываются их ожидания, опыт и способности, - все то, что помогает находить решения, которые люди находят мощными и приятными.
От начала и до конца книги авторы старались более наглядно рассказывать о концепциях, методах и проблемах визуальной части пользовательских интерфейсов, а также о проблемах, возникающих за пределами настольных компьютеров
(Алан Купер об интерфейсе. Основы проектирования взаимодействия)


About the Authors
Foreword: The Postindustrial World
Introduction to the Third Edition

Part I. Understanding Goal-Directed Design

Chapter 1. Goal-Directed Design

Digital Products Need Better Design Methods
The creation ofdigital products today
Why are these products so bad?
The Evolution ofDesign in Manufacturing
Planning and Designing Behavior
Recognizing User Goals

Goals versus tasks and activities
Designing to meet goals in context
The Goal-Directed Design Process
Bridging the gap
A process overview
Goals,not features,are the key to product success

Chapter 2. Implementation Models and Mental Models

Implementation Models
User Mental Models
Represented Models
Most Software Conforms to Implementation Models

User interfaces designed by engineers follow the implementation model
Mathematical thinking leads to implementation model interfaces
Mechanical-Age versus Information-Age Represented Models
Mechanical-Age representations
New technology demands new representations
Mechanical-Age representations degrade user interaction
Improving on Mechanical-Age representations:An example

Chapter 3. Beginners, Experts, and Intermediates

Perpetual Intermediates
Designing for Different Experience Levels

What beginners need
Getting beginners on board
What experts need
What perpetual intermediates need

Chapter 4. Understanding Users: Qualitative Research

Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
The value ofqualitative research
Types ofqualitative research
Ethnographic Interviews:Interviewing and Observing Users
Contextual inquiry
Improving on contextual inquiry
Preparing for ethnographic interviews
Conducting ethnographic interviews
Other Types ofResearch
Focus groups
Market demographics and market segments
Usability and user testing
Card sorting
Task analysis

Chapter 5. Modeling Users: Personas and Goals

Why Model?
Strengths ofpersonas as a design tool
Personas are based on research
Personas are represented as individual people
Personas represent groups ofusers
Personas explore ranges ofbehavior
Personas must have motivations
Personas can also represent nonusers
Personas and other user models
When rigorous personas aren’t possible:Provisional personas
Goals motivate usage patterns
Goals should be inferred from qualitative data
User goals and cognitive processing
The three types ofuser goals
User goals are user motivations
Types ofgoals
Successful products meet user goals first
Constructing Personas
Step 1:Identify behavioral variables
Step 2:Map interview subjects to behavioral variables
Step 3:Identify significant behavior patterns
Step 4:Synthesize characteristics and relevant goals
Step 5:Check for completeness and redundancy
Step 6:Expand description ofattributes and behaviors
Step 7:Designate persona types
Other Models
Workflow models
Artifact models
Physical models

Chapter 6. The Foundations of Design: Scenarios and Requirements

Scenarios:Narrative as a Design Tool
Scenarios in design
Using personas in scenarios
Different types ofscenarios
Persona-based scenarios versus use cases
Requirements:The “What”ofInteraction Design
Requirements Definition Using Personas and Scenarios
Step 1:Creating problem and vision statements
Step 2:Brainstorming
Step 3:Identifying persona expectations
Step 4:Constructing context scenarios
Step 5:Identifying requirements

Chapter 7. From Requirements to Design: The Framework and Refinement

The Design Framework
Defining the interaction framework
Defining the visual design framework
Defining the industrial design framework
Refining the Form and Behavior
Design Validation and Usability Testing

When to test:Summative and formative evaluations
Conducting formative usability tests
Designer involvement in usability studies

Part II. Designing Behavior and Form

Chapter 8. Synthesizing Good Design: Principles and Patterns

Interaction Design Principles
Principles operate at different levels ofdetail
Behavioral and interface-level principles minimize work
Design Values
Ethical interaction design
Purposeful interaction design
Pragmatic interaction design
Elegant interaction design
Interaction Design Patterns
Architectural patterns and interaction design
Recording and using interaction design patterns
Types ofinteraction design patterns

Chapter 9. Platform and Posture

Designing Desktop Software
Designing for the Web

Informational Web sites
Transactional Web sites
Web applications
Internet-enabled applications
Other Platforms
General design principles
Designing for handhelds
Designing for kiosks
Designing for television-based interfaces
Designing for automotive interfaces
Designing for appliances
Designing for audible interfaces

Chapter 10. Orchestration and Flow

Flow and Transparency
Designing Harmonious Interactions

Chapter 11. Eliminating Excise

GUI Excise
Excise and expert users
Training wheels
Visual excise
Determining what is excise
Stopping the Proceedings
Errors,notifiers,and confirmation messages
Making users ask permission
Common Excise Traps
Navigation Is Excise

Navigation among multiple screens,views,or pages
Navigation between panes
Navigation between tools and menus
Navigation ofinformation
Improving Navigation
Reduce the number ofplaces to go
Provide signposts
Provide overviews
Provide appropriate mapping ofcontrols to functions
Inflect your interface to match user needs
Avoid hierarchies

Chapter 12. Designing Good Behavior

Designing Considerate Products
Considerate products take an interest
Considerate products are deferential
Considerate products are forthcoming
Considerate products use common sense
Considerate products anticipate human needs
Considerate products are conscientious
Considerate products don’t burden you with their personal problems
Considerate products keep us informed
Considerate products are perceptive
Considerate products are self-confident
Considerate products don’t ask a lot ofquestions
Considerate products fail gracefully
Considerate products know when to bend the rules
Considerate products take responsibility
Designing Smart Products
Putting the idle cycles to work
Smart products have a memory
Task coherence
Actions to remember
Applying memory to your applications

Chapter 13. Metaphors, Idioms, and Affordances

Interface Paradigms
Implementation-centric interfaces
Metaphoric interfaces
Idiomatic interfaces
Further Limitations ofMetaphors
Finding good metaphors
The problems with global metaphors
Macs and metaphors:A revisionist view
Building Idioms
Manual Affordances

Semantics ofmanual affordances
Fulfilling user expectations ofaffordances

Chapter 14. Visual Interface Design

Art,Visual Interface Design,and Other Design Disciplines
Graphic design and user interfaces
Visual information design
Industrial design
The Building Blocks ofVisual Interface Design
Principles ofVisual Interface Design
Use visual properties to group elements and provide clear hierarchy
Provide visual structure and flow at each level oforganization
Use cohesive,consistent,and contextually appropriate imagery
Integrate style and function comprehensively and purposefully
Avoid visual noise and clutter
Keep it simple
Text in visual interfaces
Color in visual interfaces
Visual interface design for handhelds and other devices
Principles ofVisual Information Design
Enforce visual comparisons
Show causality
Show multiple variables
Integrate text,graphics,and data in one display
Ensure the quality,relevance,and integrity ofthe content
Show things adjacently in space,not stacked in time
Don’t de-quantify quantifiable data
Consistency and Standards
Benefits ofinterface standards
Risks ofinterface standards
Standards,guidelines,and rules ofthumb
When to violate guidelines
Consistency and standards across applications

Part III. Designing Interaction Details

Chapter 15. Searching and Finding: Improving Data Retrieval

Storage and Retrieval Systems
Storage and Retrieval in the Physical World

Everything in its place:Storage and retrieval by location
Indexed retrieval
Storage and Retrieval in the Digital World
Relational Databases versus Digital Soup

Organizing the unorganizable
Problems with databases
The attribute-based alternative
Natural Language Output:An Ideal Interface for
Attribute-Based Retrieval

Chapter 16. Understanding Undo

Users and Undo
User mental models ofmistakes
Undo enables exploration
Designing an Undo Facility
Types and Variants ofUndo
Incremental and procedural actions
Blind and explanatory Undo
Single and multiple Undo
Group multiple Undo
Other Models for Undo-Like Behavior
Comparison:What would this look like?
Category-specific Undo
Deleted data buffers
Versioning and reversion

Chapter 17. Rethinking Files and Save

What’s Wrong with Saving Changes to Files?
Problems with the Implementation Model

Closing documents and removing unwanted changes
Save As
Implementation Model versus Mental Model
Dispensing with the Implementation Model
Designing with a Unified File Model

Automatically saving
Creating a copy
Naming and renaming
Placing and moving
Specifying the stored format
Reversing changes
Abandoning all changes
Creating a version
A new File menu
A new name for the File menu
Communicating status
Are Disks and File Systems a Feature?
Time for Change

Chapter 18. Improving Data Entry

Data Integrity versus Data Immunity
Data immunity
What about missing data?
Data entry and fudgeability
Auditing versus Editing

Chapter 19. Pointing, Selecting, and Direct Manipulation

Direct Manipulation
Pointing Devices

Using the mouse
Mouse buttons
Pointing and clicking with a mouse
Mouse-up and mouse-down events
Pointing and the Cursor
Pliancy and hinting
Command ordering and selection
Discrete and contiguous selection
Insertion and replacement
Visual indication ofselection
Visual feedback for drag-and-drop
Other drag-and-drop interaction issues
Control Manipulation
Palette Tools

Modal tools
Charged cursor tools
Object Manipulation
Resizing and reshaping
3D object manipulation
Object Connection

Chapter 20. Window Behaviors

PARC and the Alto
PARC’s Principles

Visual metaphors
Avoiding modes
Overlapping windows
Microsoft and Tiled Windows
Full-Screen Applications
Multipaned Applications
Designing with Windows

Unnecessary rooms
Necessary rooms
Windows pollution
Window States
MDI versus SDI

Chapter 21. Controls

Avoiding Control-Laden Dialog Boxes
Imperative Controls

Selection Controls
Check boxes
Flip-flop buttons:A selection idiom to avoid
Radio buttons
List controls
Combo boxes
Tree controls
Entry Controls
Bounded and unbounded entry controls
Dials and Sliders
Other bounded entry controls
Unbounded entry:Text edit controls
Display Controls
Text controls
Drawers and levers

Chapter 22.Menus

A Bit ofHistory
The command-line interface
Sequential hierarchical menus
The Lotus 1-2-3 interface
Drop-down and pop-up menus
Menus Today:The Pedagogic Vecto

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